Umayyad: Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam.Abbasid: Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam (750 C.
In this period the traditional Greek culture was changed by strong Eastern influences, especially Persian, in aspects of religion and government.
Nara: agricultural in nature, centered around villages.
Most of the villagers followed the Shinto religion, based around the worship of natural and ancestral spirits.
historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road.
As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia system was a basically simple division of society into four castes (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra) arranged in a hierarchy, with the "Untouchable" (Dalit) outcasts below this structure.